El exceso de lipoproteína(a) se asocia a un mayor riesgo de recurrencia en los pacientes con ictus isquémico agudo prematuro (edad < 60 años), en los que el origen es la aterosclerosis de las grandes arterias cerebrales y en los que no tienen antecdentes de fibrilación auricular.
Arnold M, Schweizer J, Nakas CT, Schütz V, Westphal LP, Inauen C, et al.Lipoprotein(a) is associated with large artery atherosclerosis stroke aetiology and stroke recurrence among patients below the age of 60 years: results from the BIOSIGNAL study. Eur Heart J. 2021 Mar 8:ehab081. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehab081.
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a recognized causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease but its role for acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) is controversial. In this study, we evaluated the association of Lp(a) with large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) stroke and risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events in AIS patients.
Methods and results: For this analysis of the prospective, observational, multicentre BIOSIGNAL cohort study we measured Lp(a) levels in plasma samples of 1733 primarily Caucasian (98.6%) AIS patients, collected within 24 h after symptom onset. Primary outcomes were LAA stroke aetiology and recurrent cerebrovascular events (ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack) within 1 year. We showed that Lp(a) levels are independently associated with LAA stroke aetiology [adjusted odds ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.90, per unit log10Lp(a) increase] and identified age as a potent effect modifier (Pinteraction =0.031) of this association. The adjusted odds ratio for LAA stroke in patients aged <60 years was 3.64 (95% CI 1.76-7.52) per unit log10Lp(a) increase and 4.04 (95% CI 1.73-9.43) using the established cut-off ≥100 nmol/l. For 152 recurrent cerebrovascular events, we did not find a significant association in the whole cohort. However, Lp(a) levels ≥100 nmol/l were associated with an increased risk for recurrent events among patients who were either <60 years [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.40, 95% CI 1.05-5.47], had evident LAA stroke aetiology (adjusted HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.08-4.40), or had no known atrial fibrillation (adjusted HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.03-2.48).
Conclusion: Elevated Lp(a) was independently associated with LAA stroke aetiology and risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events among primarily Caucasian individuals aged <60 years or with evident arteriosclerotic disease.